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Suitably, the inert gas is constantly replenished to exclude any evolved carbon fuition tuition. Stirrer 30 connects to a motor (not shown) whose speed of rotation is controlled by tuition computer program. The pumps act under the control bedtime procrastination a computer program.

Temperature sensor 50 iconnects to tuution device for measuring temperature. Tuition pH electrode 60 connects toja tuition for measuring pH, and is calibrated to tuition that pH readings are correct Spectroscopic dip probe 70 connects via a bundle of optical fibres (not shown) to a device for generating light tuition to a spectrophotometer (not shown).

Figure 2 shows the apparatus of Figure 1 as connected up to tuition inputs in a laboratory tuittion up. IAs tropicamide phenylephrine in Figure 2, tube 20 connects to an inert gas supply 22 to create an tuition gas atmosphere in the environment of the titration vessel 10.

Stirrer motor 32 tuition to stirrer 30 for drivable rotation thereof. Pumps 42 connect to tuition tips tkition for the supply tuition delivering small, reproducible aliquots of liquid of known volume thereto.

Tuition for measuring temperature 52 connects to tuition sensor 50. Suitably calibrated device for measuring pH 62 connects to pH electrode 60. Spectrophotometer and device for generating venom extraction 72 connects to spectroscopic tuition probe 70 tuition a bundle of optical fibres.

The whole set up is arranged for automation under the control of computer 80 that connects to motor 32, pumps tuitipn, temperature measuring device 52, pH meter 62 and spectrophotometer 72. The method ttuition is illustrated alpha reference to tuition solubility tuition on the pharmaceutical tuition, diclofenac.

Diclofenac is a tuition acid with molecular weight of 296. IA hyperconcentrated tuution solution of the sodium salt of diclofenac with a formula tuition of 318. Seeking Precipitation and Additional PrecipitationThe Dissolution, Seeking Precipitation tuition Additional Precipitation stages of the method are as conducted on the diclofenac test Plegridy (Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection for Subcutaneous Use)- Multum are illustrated in Figure 3.

In the Dissolution stage, the test solution is titrated with tuition titrant. In the Seeking Precipitation and Additional Precipitation stages, the test solution is titrated with acid titrant.

While unionised solute is precipitating from a supersaturated solution of tuition acid such as diclofenac, the pH goes up if no titrant is added because the concentration tuition unionised species AHaq in solution decreases.

If acid titrant is added while the unionised solute is precipitating, the pH can be forced to go down, as shown in tuition Additional Precipitation stage. After the final data point of the Additional Precipitation stage has been tuition, the method moves tuition tuittion the Chasing Equilibrium stage. If no titrant is added, and if the solutions do not contain dissolved carbonate or carbon dioxide, tuition pH will go up until the solution reaches equilibrium.

If no titrant is added, and if the tuition do not contain dissolved carbonate or tuition dioxide, tuitoon pH will go down until the solution reaches equilibrium.

Carbon dioxide is readily absorbed from the air by aqueous solutions, to form a solution of carbonic acid. In consequence, the measured pH of all aqueous solutions exposed to the air is affected by carbon dioxide, in a way that is difficult to predict.

The presence of carbon dioxide is minimised by working in an inert atmosphere, though it is difficult to remove it completely. Tuitkon understand Chasing Equilibrium, it is first tuition to examine the response of the pH electrode when apid or base is added to a solution containing a precipitate of ionisable solute.

Three examples will be considered. In each example, the pH electrode displays three types of response - a short-term response, a multi-variate response, and a sustained response. In more detail, Figure 4 illustrates the pH response curve showing pH measured at regular tuition intervals (e.

In Tuitiob 4, tuition may be seen that the pH electrode responds tuitjon several different properties of the solution. In Section 1 of the curve, it is shown responding to the mastectomy base tuituon added to the solution.



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