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In common understanding the word "tribe" is a social division within a traditional society consisting of a group of interlinked families or communities sharing a common culture and dialect.

In the contemporary western mind the modern tribe is typically associated with a seat of traditional authority (tribal leader) with whom the representatives of external powers (the governing state or occupying government) interact. For various reasons, the term "tribe" fell into disfavor in the latter part of the twentieth century. For many anthropologists, when the term was clearly defined it became an "ideal" concept, with no basis in reality.

Thus, it was replaced with the designation "ethnic group," which Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum a group of people of common ancestry and language, shared cultural history, and roche ran nike identifiable territory.

Nevertheless, the term tribe is still in common use and the term used for recognized Native American governments in the United States.

An ethnic group is a human population whose Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum identify with each other, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or lineage.

Ethnic groups are also usually united by common cultural, behavioral, linguistic, or religious practices. This term is preferred over tribe, as it overcame the negative connotations that the term tribe had acquired under colonialism.

A chiefdom is any community immunotherapy by an individual known as a chief. In anthropological theory, one model of human social development describes a chiefdom as a form of social organization more complex than a tribe, and less complex than a state or a civilization.

The most Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum (but still working) definition of a chiefdom in anthropology belongs to Robert Carneiro: "An autonomous political unit comprising a number of villages or communities under the permanent control of a paramount chief. They are prone to cycles of collapse and drug rape, in which tribal units band together, Minocycline Hydrochloride Tablets (Dynacin)- Multum in power, fragment through some form of social stress, and band together again.

An example of this kind of social organization would be the Germanic Peoples who conquered the western Roman Empire in the fifth century C. Although commonly referred to as tribes, the Germanic Peoples were by anthropological definition not tribes, but chiefdoms.

They had a complex social hierarchy consisting of kings, a warrior aristocracy, common freemen, serfs, and slaves. Chiefdoms are characterized by pervasive inequality of peoples and centralization of authority.

At least two inherited social classes (elite and commoner) are present, although social class can often be changed by extraordinary behavior during an individual's life. Kinship is typically an organizing principle, while marriage, age, and gender can affect one's social status and role.

A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. It usually includes the set Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum institutions that claim magnesium carbonate authority to make the rules that govern the people of the society in that territory, though its status as a Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum often depends in part on being recognized Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum a number of other states as having internal and johnson nyquist sovereignty over it.

In sociology, the state is normally identified with these institutions: in Max Weber's influential definition, it is that organization that has a "monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory," which may include the armed forces, civil service, or state bureaucracy, courts, and police.

A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. Historically, city-states have often been part of larger cultural areas, as in the city-states of ancient Greece (such as Athens, Sparta and Corinth), the central Asian cities along the Silk Road (which included Samarkand and Bukhara), or the city-states of Northern Italy (especially Florence and Venice). Among the most creative periods in human history are those in which humanity organized itself in glandula pituitaria independent centers.

However, these small creative groupings usually survived for only short periods of time because they lacked the size and strength to defend themselves against the onslaught of larger social entities.

Thus, they inevitably gave way to larger organizations of society, the empire and eventually the nation-state. The modern nation-state is larger and more populous than the city-states of Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum Greece or Medieval Europe. Those states were governed through face-to-face relationships of people that Sumatriptan Nasal Powder Nasal Administration (Onzetra Xsail)- Multum lived within the walls of the city.

The nation-state also differs from an empire, which is usually an expansive territory comprising numerous states and many nationalities which is united by political and military power, and a common currency. The language of an empire is often not the mother tongue of most of its inhabitants. There are two directions for the formation of a nation-state. The first-and more peaceful way-is for responsible people living in a territory to organize a common government for the nation-state they will create.

The second, and more violent and oppressive method-is for a ruler or army to conquer a territory and impose its will on the people it rules.



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