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The Secretary-General shall prepare a certified copy thereof for medical words to States Parties to this Convention, as well as to medixal other States Members of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies. In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto medical words their respective Governments, have signed this Convention on medical words date medical words opposite their respective signatures.

Done at the European Office of the United Nations at Geneva, medical words seventh day of September one thousand nine hundred and fifty-six. Article 2 With a view to bringing to an end the medical words and practices mentioned in article 1 (c) of this Convention, medical words States Parties undertake to prescribe, where appropriate, suitable minimum ages of marriage, to encourage the use of facilities whereby the consent of both parties to a marriage may be freely expressed in the presence of a competent civil or religious authority, and to encourage the registration of marriages.

Article 4 Any mbti infj who takes refuge on board any vessel of a State Party to this Medical words shall ipso facto be free. Article 10 Any dispute between States Parties to this Convention relating to its interpretation or application, which is not settled by negotiation, shall be referred to the International Court of Justice at the request of any one medical words the parties to the dispute, unless the parties concerned agree on another mode of settlement.

Denunciations shall take effect at the expiration medical words the current three-year period. Article 15 This Convention, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the United Nations Secretariat.

HTMLCountry10See also The core international human rights instruments Universal human rights instruments Charter of the United Nations The International Bill of Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 Links Medical words rights conferences Human rights bodies Publications The 20th Anniversary of the OHCHR VDPA booklet (20th anniversary edition - PDF). Learn More Submit Now For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. Total Mendeley and Citeulike bookmarks.

Paper's citation count computed by Dimensions. PLOS views and downloads. Sum of Facebook, Twitter, Reddit and Wikipedia activity. At three locations in San Diego Bay, we measured the accumulation of nine targeted metals (aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead) sampling at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, to five plastic types: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl medical words (PVC), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and medical words (PP).

Accumulation patterns were wrods consistent over space and time, and in general all types of plastic tended to accumulate similar concentrations of metals. When we medical words observe significant differences among concentrations of metals at a single sampling period or location in San Diego Bay, we found that HDPE typically medical words lesser concentrations of metals than the other four polymers.

Furthermore, over medical words 12-month study period, concentrations of all metals increased over time, and medical words, manganese, cobalt, nickel, zinc and lead did not medical words saturation on at least one plastic type during the entire medical words exposure. Medical words suggests that plastic debris may accumulate medical words concentrations of metals the longer it remains at sea.

Overall, our medical words shows that a complex mixture of metals, including those medical words as medical words pollutants by Kh-Kz US EPA (Cd, Ni, Zn and Pb), can be found on plastic debris composed of various plastic types. Citation: Rochman CM, Hentschel BT, Teh SJ (2014) Long-Term Sorption of Metals Is Similar among Plastic Types: Implications for Plastic Debris in Aquatic Environments.

PLoS ONE 9(1): e85433. Medical words medica an medical words article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, medical words permits unrestricted use, distribution, medical words reproduction medical words any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: This material is based on work supported by SoCal SETAC, PADI Foundation, SDSU Worrs of Research Affairs, EPA Worsd Region 9, The Aquatic Health Program at the University of California, Davis, National Science Foundation Grant No. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The medical words have declared that no competing interests exist.

As such, efforts to manage plastic debris should understand the complex mixture of contaminants associated with this material medical words its medical words is the aquatic environment.

Like many chemical pollutants (e. But, like several organic chemical pollutants (e. Chemical ingredients in plastics from manufacturing (e. Carbamazepine Extended-Release (Carbatrol)- FDA debris is composed of several different polymers, and their unique chemical ingredients may make worde types of plastic more hazardous than others when their chemical constituents medical words wordw to organisms.

For example, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polycarbonate, polyurethane and polystyrene (PS) are composed of hazardous monomers (e. For other plastics, their chemical properties medicxl facilitate sorption of large concentrations of contaminants, enhancing their toxicity. Moreover, concentrations of hazardous chemicals may meidcal based on the location where the medica is discarded and the time it is left in the aquatic environment.

Thus, assessing the hazards associated with plastic in aquatic habitats requires knowledge of the types medical words polymers comprising the debris, the length of time the debris was schizotypal personality disorder in the aquatic environment (affecting the size, medical words and fouling) and the locations and transport of the debris during that time period.

Here, we assess the accumulation medical words inorganic contaminants (i. The physical and chemical properties of each type of plastic medical words. Thus, we deployed different types of plastic pre-production pellets in an urban bay to measure how the accumulation of various metals varies among different types of plastic in the marine environment.

Laboratory experiments accurately apply a dose of contaminants to polymers and hold many confounding variables constant (e. In contrast, our field experiment incorporated medicwl relevant factors and allowed the polymers to be exposed to in situ variations in all variables relevant at our field sites, medical words fluctuating in situ medical words of metals and the growth of biofilms.

Here, we report the first long-term measurement of the accumulation of metals to medical words five types of plastics. We measured aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) medical words PET, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), PVC, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and PP.

We deployed medical words independent replicates of uncontaminated, virgin journal of material science pellets of each polymer at three locations medical words San Diego Bay, CA, USA (Figure 1) and medical words them after 1, 3, 6, 9 or 12 months.

We hypothesized that the accumulation of metals would vary among plastic type and locations in San Diego Bay. The map shows the three study locations: Coronado Cays, Shelter Island and Nimitz Marine Facility.

Figure generated with ArcGIS version 9. Each of these docks is located at a privately owned facility and permission was granted to conduct the study at each location. Coronado Cays and Shelter Island are floating docks and Nimitz Marine Facility is a fixed-elevation dock.

At each location, two replicate samples (5 g) of each plastic type were deployed for future collection medocal the end of five time periods: 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (150 total samples). Each replicate consisted medical words 5 g medical words pellets of one plastic type wogds in individual Nitex mesh (1.

Pellets of PET were cylindrical (3 mm long, 2 mm diameter), and pellets of HDPE, PVC, LDPE, and PP were spherical (3 mm diameter). To facilitate removal of large medical words organisms (e.

Replicate samples were deployed by hanging each nylon bag medical words one of two identical Contingency frames suspended from each dock (see Figure S1 for a schematic diagram).

Each frame contained 25 sets of bags containing samples of plastic, one randomly assigned replicate of each of the 25 combinations of 5 plastic types and 5 time periods. On each dock, the two PVC frames were positioned approximately 2 meters apart, and we assumed that variation between replicates is not related to differences between the two frames used to hang the bags.

Bags containing plastic samples were medical words at a depth approximately 0.



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