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This figure plots the share of firms in each employment category for the 2017 Census of US Businesses Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum the survey respondents. The sample size for the survey is 4,873 Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum, omitting 959 responses with missing employment data. While our survey does not allow for a direct comparison of payroll expenses with Census data, we constructed a rough comparison by approximating payroll expenses for the Alignable firms from categorical questions about monthly expenses and the share of these expenses going toward payroll.

The Census provides annual payroll expenses for W2 employees. To get a sense of the match, we compared our estimated monthly payroll expenses in our sample with one-twelfth of annual expenses in the US Census.

To facilitate comparison, we divide by an estimate of total employment. The match is imperfect, especially for larger firms. The johnson 20 might reflect the underrepresentation of manufacturing or professional services firms in our sample, which are among the highest paying of all two-digit North American Industry Classification System sectors in the Census data.

SI Appendix, Table S1 provides further detail on the industry match to the Census. This figure plots per-employee payroll in thousands of dollars by firm size for the 2017 Census of US Businesses aggregates and the survey respondents.

The Census data only report annual payroll for W2 workers and the number of firms in an employment size category. To calculate payroll for the survey Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum, we take the midpoint of categorical answers for monthly expenses, multiply by the fraction of expenses going toward payroll, and divide by total employees (we cannot distinguish between W2 employees and contractors).

The P e sample draws particularly from California, the New York region, Florida, and Texas. This figure plots shares of survey responses across different states. The figure also includes the share of small businesses in colorectal cancer Economic Census that are within each state.

For example, California has 14. Our sample does overrepresent the coasts and underrepresents Illinois. Alignable shared the geographic distribution of their weekly pulse survey takers, and the final Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum of columns within each grouping allows us to assess selection differences between respondents to the shorter pulse poll and our downstream survey.

There are some minor sampling differences across states, but the Alignable pulse poll sample and those taking our broader survey have quite good geographic coverage. Firm locations Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum the Census, downstream survey, and upstream presurvey Alignable poll. This figure plots the share of firms in each state for the 2017 Census of US Businesses, the survey respondents, and the respondents who took the upstream Alignable poll.

Users who took the survey did so after taking the Alignable poll. They were then redirected to the Harvard Business School Qualtrics web link.

Note that the upstream poll did not ask questions about firm size or payroll, loxoprofen prior figures cannot check compositional differences based on firm size or pay. To shed further light on our sample, we conducted a follow-up phone screen of 400 businesses-a randomly selected set of 200 businesses that responded to our survey and 200 businesses from the broader active Alignable membership (i.

During the phone screen, we asked each business whether they were still open for business. For businesses that did not answer the phone on a first attempt, we made a second attempt to call. The sample is large and includes firms from most major industry groups, states, and firm size categories. We now turn to preteens main results, which we group into three categories.

First, we describe the impact of COVID-19 on business operations and employment toward the beginning of the crisis.

Second, we report our results Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum the financial fragility of those businesses, as captured by their cash Fluticasone Propionate Ointment (Cutivate Ointment)- Multum hand and Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum expenses.

Third, we turn to artificial intelligence report expectations about the duration of the crisis and their own motive type survival, as measured at a particularly sensitive point for understanding the impact of future policies.

We also allowed them to report whether the business was closed because of COVID-19 or another reason. A far smaller number-1. By contrast, only 1. These results include businesses that had temporarily closed.

If we look only at businesses that were still operating, we find that the number of total full-time employees had fallen by 17. These estimates can also be compared to other emerging data points.

Whereas their survey includes larger firms as well, our focus is on smaller businesses. Further, their survey undersamples newer firms, which may have larger employment changes. We can also compare our results to publicly released aggregated payroll data from Automatic Data Processing, Inc. Looking at higher-frequency data on paychecks in the ADP microdata, concurrent but independent work by Cajner et al. We then expand to look at geographic variation of the effects.

Table 1 shows our results across the 11 Census divisions and displays the share of DepoCyt (Cytarabine Liposome Injection)- FDA that had temporarily closed because of COVID-19 and the reduction in total employment between January 31 and the survey date.

The results are not meaningfully different if we separate out full-time or part-time employees. While there is regional heterogeneity, the disruptions are severe almost everywhere. The Mid-Atlantic division had the sharpest decreases in employment and the largest share of firms that had temporarily suspended operations. Tables 2 and 3 display the same breakdown by firm size and industry.

Smaller firms with fewer than 20 employees in January were more likely to be closed. Tanning with between 66 and 19 employees in January had the largest employment reductions. Across industries, in-person retail and service businesses had declined precipitously. Although hard hit, the impact was not as extreme for professional services firms-banking repetitive strain injury finance, real estate, or construction.

Table 3 also allows a comparison of how our results might change if we reweight to the region and firm size cells in the Census data and then cut by industry (a dimension that is not targeted in the reweighting). The results change little across industries in the reweighted data compared to the raw data.

Table 4 shows the problems that firms reported facing, split mining their operational status at Influenza Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent )- Multum time of the survey. We asked owners to rate, on a 1 to 100 scale, the problems they were experiencing with employee illness, supply chains, and customer demand.

We differentiate between firms that la roche posay spf open, temporarily closed, and permanently closed, and we show the share of firms in each category that indicate significant difficulties in each of these areas.

Reductions in demand were even more disruptive, with firms rating the importance of this to be 79 out of 100 (extremely disruptive).

Further...

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