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Measurements of mixing under arctic storms (Kawaguchi et al. Unfortunately, Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum is difficult to capture the fate of near-inertial internal waves Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum the Arctic Ocean from generation to dissipation, because in the presence of Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum cover, concurrent high-resolution fixed point Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum of wind speed, ice drift, and ocean velocities from the surface to depth are difficult to make.

The SODA measurement program builds on advances in autonomous observing from the Marginal Ice Zone DRI to employ a system consisting of four interrelated components (Figure, at right):1. Drifting observations from ice-based buoys Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum instruments drifting in the snakeskin column,3. Beaufort Sea inflow observations by floats and Pressure Inverted Echo Sounders (PIES),4.

Blue lines mark ice-based observing, gold geographically fixed measurements, green inflow observations, and red-outlined box the process cruise. Other grey boxes mark cruises. Complementary observing elements will sample through diverse atmospheric forcing and ice cover regimes, providing a wide dynamic range to address SODA science questions.

In this study, we present observations from an array of moorings in the Beaufort Sea. When translations of bulk model outputs to ice geometry are included in the parameterizations, they overpredict drag on floe edges, leading to the inverted seasonal cycle seen in prior models.

MacKinnon, "Wave-driven roche vitamin along a compact marginal ice zone," Geophys. Observations of surface waves and ice Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum along a compact sea ice edge demonstrate the importance of waves in a marginal ice zone. A momentum balance using quadratic drag to oppose the wave forcing is sufficient to explain the observations. Lateral shear stresses in the ice are also evaluated, though this balance does not match the observations as well.

Additional forcing by local winds is included and is small relative to the wave forcing. The simplistic drag is assessed using observations of shear and turbulent dissipation rates. The results have implications for the shape and evolution of the ice edge, because the lateral shear may be a source of instabilities.

On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep Sea Res. Freshwater and its role in the Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum Marine Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum Sources, disposition, storage, export, and physical and biogeochemical consequences in the Arctic and global oceans, J.

Ekman veering, internal waves, and turbulence observed under Arctic sea ice, J. Internal waves and mixing Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Analytical representation of internal wave spectra, J. Dynamics of the changing near-inertial internal wave field in the Arctic Ocean, J. Mean dynamic topography of Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum Arctic Ocean, Geophys.

Space-time scales of internal waves, Geophys. Space-time scales of internal waves: A progress report, J. On the behavior of internal waves in the wakes of storms, J. Scaling turbulent dissipation in the thermocline, J. Revisiting internal waves and mixing in the Arctic Ocean, Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum. Fixed-point observation of mixed layer evolution in the seasonally ice-free Chukchi Sea: Turbulent mixing due to gale winds and internal gravity waves, J.

A theory of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre variability, J. Seasonality and long-term trend of Arctic Ocean surface stress in a model, J.

Near-inertial waves and sea ice Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum the Beaufort Sea, Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum. In Ocean Circulation and Climate 2nd edition, J. Shelf drainage flow in the Beaufort Sea and Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum effects on the Arctic Ocean pycnocline, Deep Sea Res.

The dissipation of internal wave energy under arctic ice, J. Boundary layer observations in the Greenland Sea marginal ice zone, J. Vertical heat fluxes through the Beaufort Sea thermohaline staircase, J. Sea ice cover (in State of the Climate in 2011), Bull. Meier, M, Tschudi, S. Near-inertial wave propagation in the western Arctic, J.

Internal wave observations from the Arctic environmental drifting buoy, J. Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean, J. Understanding climatic controls on sea-ice transport pathways in the Arctic Ocean, Ann. The role of the Beaufort Gyre in Arctic climate variability: Seasonal to decadal climate scales, Geophys.

Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir: State and variability from Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum, J. Mixing across the Arctic Ocean: Microstructure observations during the Beringia 2005 Expedition, Geophys. Formation and evolution of Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum surface mixed layer and the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J.

Uncertainty in modeled Arctic sea ice volume, J. Representation of mean Arctic precipitation from NCEP-NCAR and Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum reanalyses, J. The large-scale freshwater neophobia of the Arctic, Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum. The role of the upper ocean in the surface heat budget of the Arctic Ocean, J. Circulation of summer Pacific halocline water in the Arctic Ocean, J. Emerging trends in the sea state of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, Ocean Model.

Ice-Tethered Profiler observations of the Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum diffusive staircase in the Canada Basin thermocline, J. Horizontal density structure and restratification of the Arctic ocean surface layer, J. Near-inertial energy propagation Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum the mixed layer: Theoretical considerations, J. Characterizing the migraine headache relief field in the Arctic Ocean halocline, J.

Lee Freitag Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hans Graber Estrace (Estradiol)- Multum, Univ.



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