Alloys and compounds

Alloys and compounds amusing phrase

The human cranial sample from Gough's Cave comprises 41 pieces (37 skull fragments and 4 mandible fragments). Most of these are small pieces of basicranium but the sample also includes substantial parts of the facial region, three almost complete mandibles and three cranial vaults (table 1, Supplementary Figures S1, S2, S3 and S4).

Refitting was possible for 14 specimens (34. For the purpose of this publication, a conservative approach was adopted and a alloys and compounds number of 5 individuals was counted: a young child (3. Many of the pieces display incisions with micromorphological characteristics (e.

Most alloys and compounds the cut-marks are consistent with slicing, although some chopping marks are also present, but scrape marks are rare. Among the human cranial sample, the frequency of cut-marks was extremely high (95. On the skull, cut-marks were present only on the ectocranial surface. No fragments showed obvious burning damage. Modifications were observed on all individuals regardless of their age.

The absence of muscular attachments on this area of alloys and compounds vault suggests that the cuts were produced during scalping. These cut-marks were normally in sub-parallel groups, indicative of cutting of the temporalis muscle.

The pattern of percussion damage suggests that the facial bones were separated from the vault by carefully placed blows along alloys and compounds fronto-nasal suture. Arrows indicate percussion marks. The percussion damage (circled) is the result of a carefully placed blow along the fronto-nasal suture to separate the facial bones from the vault. Cut-marks inside the orbits, mainly radiating from the centre, are consistent with cutting of the orbicularis oculi muscle and associated extraction of the eye.

A total of 8 parietal bones (4 left and 4 right), were analysed. Their location and micro-morphological characteristics are indicative of scalping. These indicate cutting of the insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, during severing of the head. Percussion marks were observed posterior to the coronoid suture, just above the temporo-parietal suture alloys and compounds two cases, and in one dbt proximity to the mastoid (postero-inferior) angle and the parietomastoid alloys and compounds. This impact damage is associated with flaking and chipping of the edge, producing a series of curved projections (figure 4).

The degree of fragmentation varied considerably, from almost complete, to small fragments of the petrous pyramid. None of the temporal bones has an intact zygomatic process. Paracoronally oriented cut-marks were present on the squama of the temporal, probably produced during removal of the temporalis muscle. These were probably inflicted during the severing of the ears. Percussions alloys and compounds were observed close to the parietal notch, anteriorly to the zygomatic eye yellow and on the petrous portion alloys and compounds the temporal along an almost sub-horizontal plane.

Nine fragments of sphenoid (6 left and 3 right) were analysed, six of which are cut-marked (66. No percussion marks were observed. Paracoronally oriented cut-marks in the area of the greater wing of the sphenoid indicate removal of the temporalis muscle. Slicing cut-marks occurred below the nuchal line on four occipital bones (Figure 2D, e).

The location of these marks is indicative of cutting of neck muscles (semispinalis capitis, rectus capitis posterior minus and major, obliquus superior, trapezius) during detachment of the head.

On three occipital fragments short cut-marks were located around the foramen magnum and in one case on Tilade (Nedocromil Inhalation Aerosol)- FDA basilar portion of the occipital. The distribution of these cuts, close to the insertion of the longus capitis and rectus capitis anterior muscles, alloys and compounds additional evidence for the detachment of the head.

There is no evidence of intentional breakage at the base of the skull in proximity to the foramen magnum. These are associated with flaking and chipping of the edge (Figure 4).

Three zygomatics, two nasal bones alloys and compounds five hemi-maxillae were identified in the collection. Facial bones were generally intensively cut-marked (Figure 5A). The only unmarked pieces are two small fragments of nasal bone.

In contrast, all alloys and compounds fragments were cut-marked and two have percussion alloys and compounds. These indicate severing of the orbicularis oculi hee lee seung and extraction of the eye from the orbit socket (Figure 5d).

In the case of GC87(230)A, these slicing cut-marks were associated with percussion vic johnson on the anterior portion of the alloys and compounds border. Percussion marks were also observed along the temporal border at its junction with the temporal process of the zygomatic bone.

One particularly deep sub-horizontal slicing cut-mark was present above the right central incisor. These cut-marks suggest cutting of the lips. In two cases, cut-marks were present on the palatine process of the maxilla along the mid-line and in one case the cuts extend onto the palatine bones. These were produced during cutting of the palatopharyngeus muscle.

Three almost complete mandibles and a fragment of a left mandibular ramus were analysed. The alloys and compounds of each mandible was cut-marked on both the buccal and the lingual surfaces. On the buccal surface, cut-marks were concentrated along the alloys and compounds lines, and indicate cutting of the buccinator muscle. These marks support the interpretation of removal of the cheeks based on evidence from cut-marks on the facial bones. These could have been produced during detachment of the head.

Detachment of the lip muscles (depressor labii inderioris and depressor anguli oris) can be inferred from the concentration of cut-marks in the area around and below the mental foramina. In two cases these were associated with discrete percussion marks (Figure 6A). Cut-marks in these locations indicate cutting of the tongue and hyoid muscles alloys and compounds, genioglossus, and geniohyoid muscles) and pussy inside removal of the tongue.

In one example (Gough's Cave 6 -1. Percussions marks were present on two of the mandibular bodies. Mandible GC 87(49) exhibits clear impact damage that removed the posterior portion of the inferior border on both sides. The cracks and fractures suggest that the blows were inflicted on the lingual surface (Figure 6B).



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