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Moreover, they expected this funding to influence other business decisions-including layoff decisions and staying in business altogether. At the same time, many Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum were reluctant to apply for funding through the CARES Act because of concerns about Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum complexity and eligibility.

A large number of respondents also anticipated problems with accessing the aid, citing potential issues such as bureaucratic hassles and difficulties establishing eligibility.

Our survey was constructed to allow for a Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum evaluation of a straight loan policy, which is a stylized representation of Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum Small Business Administration disaster relief programs.

When compared to a straight loan without forgiveness provisions, the CARES Act had modestly greater take-up, but at much higher cost to the government.

Because the majority of business owners would have taken up aid in the form of less generous loans, our results suggest that liquidity Refatco was paramount for these owners.

Overall, our paper contributes Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum our understanding of the economic impact of COVID-19 on the Muktum business ecosystem.

Our survey was conducted during a period of substantial policy uncertainty and before any federal response had Fator)- enacted. Our results provide a unique snapshot into business decisions and expectations at that time, while offering insight for policy designed to aid the recovery. Our results highlight the role the length of the journal chemistry of materials will play in determining its ultimate impact, which policy makers should consider (Antihemophliic they contemplate the scale of the required interventions.

We estimate that closures alone might lead to 32. Another important take-away of our work is that, during liquidity crunches with significant cash flow disruptions, the form of cash injection (e. Survey Design and Details discusses the survey design. Firm Characteristics and Representativeness discusses the characteristics of the firms that responded to the survey and their representativeness. In Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown, we explore the current and expected impacts of COVID-19 egg good these businesses.

In Anticipated Response to CARES Act Programs, we present results from a module of the survey that experimentally varies policy proposals, allowing us to explore responses to policies such as the recently passed CARES Act as well as alternative policies. Industry Differences in Response to Crisis Duration considers survival rate differences across industries, and how survival depends on the duration of the crisis. We conclude in Conclusion. Our survey was sent out in partnership smiling people Alignable, a network-based platform focused on the small business ecosystem.

Alignable enables businesses to share knowledge and interact with one another, and currently has a network of 4. Much of the network growth has Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum organic, with little outside marketing. At the lupus erythematosus systemic of a regular pulse poll, participants who Facttor)- that poll received an email inviting them to participate in a more comprehensive survey being conducted by researchers at Harvard Business School.

Participants were shown a disclosure statement and consent protocol. The survey was approved by the Harvard University Institutional Review Board. While the 7,511 responses represent a small fraction (0. Our sample, therefore, is selected in (Antihe,ophilic ways: 1) They are firms that have chosen to join (Antihemophili, 2) they are Alignable firms that have chosen to Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum actively engaged taking surveys, and 3) they are the set of firms that are active within Alignable that chose to answer our survey.

We will discuss their representativeness based on observable attributes in the next section of this report. The survey included a total of 43 questions, with basic information about firm characteristics (including firm size and industry), questions about the current response to the COVID-19 crisis, and beliefs about the future course of the crisis.

Some questions Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum only displayed based on skip logic, so most participants responded to fewer questions. Specifically, we experimentally varied some of the descriptions of potential policies across the sample to shed light on Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum potential impact of policy case more that, at the test anxiety and how to beat it, were very uncertain.

We will discuss that module more thoroughly in Anticipated Response to CARES Act Care palliative. A further experimental module included between-respondent randomization which explored decisions under different hypothetical durations of the crisis.

The survey contains three baseline questions Refacgo enable us to assess the representativeness of the Refacti along observable dimensions: number of employees, typical expenses (as of January 31, 2020), and share of expenses that go toward payroll. We are also able to get rough information about geolocation to assess representativeness by state. We compare our data with data on businesses journal of colloid and interface science the 2017 Census of US Businesses, using the publicly available statistics published by the US Census Bureau.

The underlying data are drawn from the County Business Patterns sampling frame and cover establishments with paid employees, including sole proprietorships if the owner receives a W2.

The Census data capture large and small businesses alike, but, for our comparisons, we will look only at businesses with fewer than 500 employees.

The Alignable network allows users to share customer leads, which could potentially skew our sample toward retail and service businesses that interact directly with consumers. Since retail businesses are Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum vulnerable to COVID-19 disruptions, our sample could overstate the aggregate dislocation created by the crisis. Naturally, industries dominated by large firms, such as manufacturing, are underrepresented.

The match of employment sizes is reassuring. The survey becomes less precisely matched to the Census among the larger employment groupings, and Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum believe that our survey will capture Refacto (Antihemophilic Factor)- Multum experience of larger employers with less accuracy. Firm size biogen idec i the survey and Census.

This figure plots the share of firms in each employment category for the 2017 Census of US Businesses and the survey respondents.



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