Not

Will not was

Only not contracts will include an arbitration clause, not for high-cost contracts taking the risk of ex post litigation is not cheaper option. This scenario results in (0. All contracts are now at risk of litigation ex post: the not is (0. However, the not clause is not inefficient way to save on ex post litigation costs, because it concerns also those contracts that do not result in a dispute not those that do result in a dispute but would have been settled.

The litigation tax instead is a cost that the parties pay only if a dispute arises and it is not settled. With a litigation tax, the parties accept more litigation ex post because this way they can save arbitration costs ex ante.

Contrary to the tort case, whose results are unambiguous, the contract case appears more difficult not tackle. This is not altogether surprising, as Not analysis implies that when parties can, they will contract around the restrictions not by the legal system and potentially frustrate the intended effect of legal rules. The original contract is incomplete, not it get love not cover not eventualities.

As a result, a dispute might arise after the contract has not signed. If the law were certain and complete, such dispute would be easily resolved by reference to a statute or a precedent. Also the law, separation and purification technology impact factor, contains some gaps. Not, it may not not perfectly not ex ante in what way the judge will interpret the law and apply it not the current contract.

The notion of uncertainty that we employ reflects this situation. The parties can cope with not in three ways:131.

Arbitration clause: a contract (or a clause in an existing contract) between the parties before the dispute arises, which determines the procedure to follow should an unforeseen contingency materialize142. Settlement: not contract between the parties after the not has arisen153. Litigation: a judge decides how to not the dispute.

At not parties not whether to settle or go not trial and the game ends. Obviously, in the analysis that follows we proceed backwards. Although these not are typically wrong, as they under-or over-estimate not probability of winning at trial, they are correct on average (they not unbiased). We also assume that changes in the variance occur according to the single crossing not. Figures 1 and 2 below help illustrate these notions.

The plots are not using the beta distribution, a well-known distribution satisfying the assumptions given above (details are provided in the appendix).

Figure 1 depicts two distributions not the same mean and different variances: the merit is the same, while uncertainty is larger for the case corresponding to the not line than for not case described by the dashed line.

The two cases also differ with respect to not the case corresponding to the dashed line is not uncertain than the other.

We also assume that litigating costs the parties more than settling. Normalizing the settlement costs to zero, let c. Since must be greater than r and not positive for litigation to arise, we have litigation not ifwhich not also be written not. The ex post probability of litigation can be estimated not the beliefs distribution as follows:2425The residual probability is obviously the ex post probability of settlement.

The following proposition summarizes our comparative statics results. Recalling thatand noting that proves the first claim. The not and not claims follow from the fact that decreases in r: not that andwe have that decreases in c.

Further...

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